St. Alphonsus de Liguori
St. Alphonsus de Liguori:
- Doctor of the Church;
- Founder of the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer;
- Patron of confessors, moral theologians and arthritics.
St Alphonsus - universal call to holiness...
Our confrere from the Naples Province, Fr Sabatino Majorano writes...
In order to approach the person and the works of St Alphonsus de Liguori (1696¬1787) in a correct manner, it is necessary to weave different approaches, given the richness of his personality and the diverse fields of his activity. For Redemptorists, since it is of prime importance to be connected with their founder, it is essential to grasp the fundamental intent, because on that depends the specificity of the Congregation.
The journey of Alphonsus as founder began in 1723, when after unjustly los¬ing a law case (concerning the feud of Amatrice), he decided to leave the court and dedicate himself totally to Christ. He experienced Christ as the meaning of his life and a sure foundation of values. The choice for the priesthood and his ordination in December 1726 caused him move to the world of the poor. He became the advocate of their right to the truth (evangelisation) and to holiness (the sacra¬ments, beginning with reconciliation). The decisive step arose from the experi¬ence of the struggles of the abandoned, those that he came across in the rural areas of southern Italy. He decided to dedicate himself totally to their evangeli¬sation to ‘continue’ the plentiful redemption of Christ. Thus, this group of men who gathered in Scala in 1732, with the pontifical approval in 1749, would be called Redemptorists.
The manner of defining the profile of the community was not very smooth. Alphonsus was soon abandoned by some of his first companions. But he knew how to remain faithful to his fundamental intention, enriching it with the contri¬bution of those who shared with him in the birth of this new community. Maria Celeste Crostarosa contributed her project of a ‘memorial’ community; Mgr Thomas Falcoia helped with his experience of religious life and a strong mis¬sionary yearning, particularly towards the Orient; Gennaro Sarnelli brought his tireless and creative dedication to the poor, especially in the social dimension.
Alphonsus was convinced of the specificity of his own community, vis-a-vis other missionary institutes. At the conclusion of this complex process of elabo¬ration of the norms, he synthesised his ‘intention’ in these terms: ‘to follow the example of our common Saviour Jesus Christ, to dedicate themselves princi¬pally…to help the rural towns of the countryside most destitute of spiritual sup-port.’ They will be like other missionary institutes, ‘but with an absolute distinctiveness to always situate their churches and houses outside the areas of inhabitation and in the midst of the dioceses, so as to be ready to travel with greater readiness for the missions in the countryside; and to be present more easily for the convenience of the poor people who rush to hear the divine word and re-ceive the sacraments in their churches’ (Spicilegium Historicum 16  385). To follow the example of the Redeemer must be understood in the perspective of participation and renewal: it requires continuing the kenotic mercy of Christ,
i.e. his incarnating himself so as to share in our condition of weakness; his actions which witness to the experience of God’s love; his unceasing reaching out to those in need of truth and healing. All this is left to the guidance of the Spirit who leads the Church on the very path of Christ (cf. Lumen Gentium, n. 8).
From the 1740s, the radical dedication to the abandoned transformed Alphon¬sus into a writer as he strove to lead them in the journey to holiness. Therefore, he was concerned with the formation of the clergy, especially in the field of moral theology and evangelisation. He became, as John Paul II has written, ‘the renovator of moral theology’, succeeding in indicating the way for ‘a correct balance between rigorism and liberty’, synthesising with these ‘memorable words: ‘it is not necessary to impose anything on people under pain of grave sin unless the reason is evident… Considering the fragility of the present human condition, it is not always true that the narrowest way is the safest way to direct souls; we see that the Church forbids both excessive liberty and excessive rigour’ (Spiritus Domini, in AAS 79  1367-1368).
From 1762-75, Alphonsus was the bishop of Sant’Agata dei Goti, but he con¬tinued, at the same time, his task of writing and of animating the Redemptorist community. He died in Pagani on 1 August 1787. He was canonised by Gregory XVI on 26 May 1839. He was declared Doctor of the Church by Pius XI on 23 March 1871, and the Patron of Confessors and Moralists by Pius XII on 26 April 1950.
The fidelity of Redemptorists to the Alphonsian intent is thus expressed in the present Constitutions: ‘Preference for situations where there is pastoral need, that is, for evangelisation in the strict sense together with the choice in favour of the poor is the very reason why the Congregation exists in the Church, and is the badge of its fidelity to the vocation it has received.’ Such a task must concern it¬self with ‘the liberation and salvation of the whole human person. The members have the duty of preaching the Gospel explicitly and of showing solidarity with the poor by promoting their fundamental rights to justice and freedom. The means employed must be effective and at the same time consistent with the Gospel’ (Const. 5).
All this is possible only through an unceasing journey (exodus), on the level of the community and every single confrere. The steps are the same as that of the Founder: discernment of the abandoned, incarnating in their midst, unconditional dedication to their evangelisation. In this manner, Redemptorists seek to remind the entire Church of the need to constantly plan its pastoral presence and action from a missionary perspective. Sharing in the difficulties of the abandoned, they are stimulated, like Alphonsus, to outline a proposal of Christian life, beginning from human fragility, in a manner in which all can rediscover and respond to the universal call to holiness.
Saint Alphonsus de Liguori - Alphonsus' writings
ST. ALPHONSUS DE LIGUORI - a full list of Alphonsus' writings
- 1728 - The Eternal Truths, 64-5, 190
- 1732 - Hymns and Verses, 190
- 1734 - Prayers to Our Lady for each day of the week, 190
- 1743 - Novena in honour of St. Teresa, 190, 348 Short Way of Perfection
- 1743 - Precis of Christian Doctrine
- 1745 - Visits to the Blessed Sacrament, 33, 67, 190-91, 254, 379
- 1745 - Reflections useful for Bishops, 191-3, 342, 370, 377
- 1746 - Letter concerning the Moral Implications of Cursing the Dead, 203-4
- 1748 - Annotations to the Medulla Theologiae Moralis of H. Busenbaum S.J. In the course of the nine editions published during the saint's lifetime the title page changed to Moral Theology of the most ill. and Rev. d. Alphonsus De Liguori, bishop of S. Agatha of the Goths and Rector Major of the Congregation of the most Holy Redeemer, 67, 184, 204-5, 207-10, 220, 262-3, 274-8, 281-6, 332-443
- 1748 - Reply to the Calumnies concerning Letter dealing with the Moral Implications of Cursing the Dead
- 1749 - Dissertation in favour of the Moderate Use of the Probable Opinion, 266, 281, 426
- 1750 - The Glories of Mary, 132, 263-4, 269-74, 398
- 1750 - Consideration on Religious Vocation, 312
- 1751 - Jesus hath loved us. Clock of the Passion
- 1751 - Concerning the Refusal of Absolution to a Cleric 'habituato in vitio turpi', 275
- 1751 - Rest for Scrupulous Souls, 74
- 1752 - Lives of Father Sarnelli and Brother Vito Curzio, 131, 301
- 1754 - On Conversing Continually and Familiarly with God, 291
- 1754 - Rules for Correct Living
- 1755 - Pratica del Confessore per ben esercitare il suo ministero (Praxis Confessarii), 50, 282-6, 349, 406
- 1755 - Dissertation on the moderate use of Probable Opinion, 281, 426
- 1755 - Conformity with the Will of God
- 1756 - Advice to newly approved Confessors
- 1756 - Against the Errors of Modern Unbelievers called Materialists and Deists, 288
- 1756 - Reply to an anonymous writer
- 1757 - Rules for Seminaries, 338, 387
- 1757 - A Short Treatise on the Necessity of Prayer, 291
- 1757 - Examination of Candidates for Ordination
- 1757 - Concerning the Cursing of the Dead, 203-6
- 1757 - Advice to Priests for Assisting the Dying, 50-52
- 1757-59 - Istruzione e pratica per un confessore (Compendium, Pratica Grande, Homo Apostolicus), 50, 284-6, 386
- 1758 - Preparation for Death, 294, 477
- 1758 - Nine Discourses for Times of Calamity
- 1758 - Novena for Christmas, 294
- 1758 - Novena for the Sacred Heart, 294
- 1758 - Meditations in honour of St. Joseph, 294
- 1758 - Reply to a Letter concerning the Cursing of the Dead
- 1758 - Preparation for Mass and Thanksgiving, 337, 513
- 1759 - Dissertation concerning the Prohibition of Books, 359
- 1759 - Prayer, the Great Means of Salvation, 291
- 1760 - The Selva (Dignity and Duties of the Priest with two Rules of Life for secular priests), 336-8, 375
- 1760 - The Exercises of the Missions, 246, 259
- 1760 - The Mass and Office hurriedly said, 338
- 1760-61 - The True Spouse of Jesus Christ, 266, 351-2
- 1761 - Meditations for a Private Retreat of Eight Days
- 1761 - Considerations on the Passion of Jesus Christ
- 1761 - The Way of the Cross
- 1761 - Letter to a fellow religious on the mannar of Preaching with Apostolic Simplicity, 260-61
- 1761 - Life and Death of Sr. Teresa de Liguori, 28
- 1761 - A Short Compendium of Christian Doctrine, 391
- 1762 - Reply to a letter from Don Cipriano Aristasio
- 1762 - Dissertation on the Moderate use of the Probable Opinion, 266, 281, 424
- 1762 - The Truth of the Faith as evidenced by the Motives of Credibility, 288
- 1762 - Method of Making Mental Prayer with Children during Mass
- 1764 - For Confessors appointed to Rural Areas (Il Confessore Diretto), 268, 427
- 1764 - Reply concerning the frequentation of Holy Communion against Don Cipriano Aristasio
- 1764 - Examination of Candidates for Confession Faculties
- 1764 - Questions to be asked of Priests who wish to engage in the Ministry of the Confessional
- 1764 - Apologia in favour of the use of an equally Probably Opinion, 425
- 1764 - Defence of Dissertation in favour of the moderate use of the Probable Opinion against Adelfo Dositeo, 424-6
- 1764 - Rules for the Monastery of Our Lady Queen of Heaven at Airola
- 1765 - On the moderate use of the Probable Opinion, 425
- 1765 - Some Points Concerning the Matter of Frequent Communion
- 1765 - An uncertain Law cannot induce a certain Obligation
- 1766 - The Way of Salvation, 383, 428
- 1766 - Life of Father Paul Cafaro, C.SS.R., 301
- 1767 - The Truth of the Faith, 288
- 1767 - Refutation of the Book De l'Esprit, 288
- 1767 - Refutation of a work On Preaching
- 1768 - Practice of the Love of Jesus Christ, 73, 428
- 1768 - Arguments against Febronius, 429
- 1768 - Instructions on the Ten Commandments for the Faithful, 427
- 1768 - Five Points on which Preachers should instruct the Faithful, 427
- 1769 - An Exposition and Defense of the Points of Faith discussed and defined at the Council of Trent, 288, 429
- 1769 - On the Grace of Justification
- 1769 - On the Acceptance due to the Definitions of a Council, 429
- 1769 - Ceremonies of the Mass
- 1769 - Honoraria for Masses
- 1769 -Apologia for his Moral Theology attacked as lax
- 1770 - An Opinion, which is not convincing, in favour of an Obligation, does not impost an Obligation
- 1771 - Sermons for all the Sundays of the year, 427
- 1771 - Letter to a Bishop on the benefits of Missions
- 1771 - Letter on the benefit of Spiritual Exercises made in Silence
- 1772 - Triumph of the Church (History and Refutation of various Heresies), 141, 289, 429
- 1772 - Sermons for the feast of St. Joseph
- 1772 - Sermons for the Clothing of a Religious
- 1773 - Considerations on the Passion of Jesus Christ
- 1773 - Considertions on some Spiritual Matters
- 1773 - On the Truth of Devine Revelation, 289
- 1773 - Is the use of Probable Opinion lawful?
- 1773 - Miraculous Discovery of the Blessed Sacrament in a parish in Naples
- 1773 - Meditations on the Passion of Jesus Christ for each day of the week
- 1774 - Explanation on the Psalms and Canticles, 34
- 1774 - Explanation of the Moral System favoured by the author (Alphonsus Maria de Liguori), 427
- 1775 - Advice to Priests appointed to assist those Condemned to Death, 50-52
- 1775 - Victory of the Martyrs, 430
- 1775 - The Sacrifice of Jesus Christ
- 1775 - Exhortation to Religious in general
- 1775 - Exhortation to a Nun to make progress in the Love of Jesus Christ
- 1775 - Wonderful Manifestation of Devine Providence
- 1775 - Reply to the Reforms of the Abbot Rolli
- 1775 - Admonitions necessary for persons of every State of Life who wish to save their Souls
- 1775 - Novena in preparation for the Feast of All Souls
- 1775 - Divine Love and the means of acquiring it
- 1775 - Consolation and Encouragement for a Soul in a state of Spiritual Desolation
- 1776 - A Theological-Moral Dissertation concerning Eternal Life, 441-3
- 1776 - Fidelity of Subjects to God renders them faithful to the Prince, 430-31
- 1777 - Instruction to Preachers
- 1778 - Exhortations addressed to the Nuns of the Most Holy Redeemer
From Alphonsus de Liguori, The Saint of Bourbon Naples 1696-1787, Frederick M. Jones, Gill and Macmillan Ltd., 1992
Saint Alphonsus de Liguori - Son of Mary
ST. ALPHONSUS DE LIGUORI - SON OF MARY
With thanks to the C.Ss.R. Baltimore Province
Like many of his countrymen, Alphonsus was a man of passion and volatility. He found his balance and security in his devotion to the Blessed Mother. His appeals to Mary were impassioned, like those of a distressed child calling for his or her mother.
He was confident Mary would hear his prayers, and she was a great spiritual wellspring of his life. He never wrote a single letter — and his personal correspondence ran into the tens of thousands — without beginning or ending it with the words, "Long live Jesus and Mary." He strongly encouraged his fellow Redemptorists and others to pray the rosary daily, and to visit Marian shrines to foster their love for the mother of God. For him she was a constant helper and guide in all matters concerning his congregation.
Although he was sickly for much of his life, Alphonsus' final years were marked by very serious and debilitating physical ailments, especially arthritis, which caused him great pain and confined him to a wheelchair.
He also was plagued with spiritual afflictions, scrupulously fearing he hadn't done enough to serve the God he loved so much. To help him through these times, his confreres gathered with him to pray. They always included the Litany of Our Lady, usually followed by the rosary. They read to him from his own writings about the glory of Mary and how, as heaven's queen, she welcomed all her true and faithful servants at the hour of their death.
Early in the evening on July 31, 1787, Alphonsus made one final request. "Give me my lady," he whispered. They placed a picture of Mary in his hands. He spent the night in prayer with the Blessed Mother. The next day at the stroke of the noon Angelus, Alphonsus died at the age of 91.
St. Alphonsus was canonized in 1839 and declared a Doctor of the Church in 1871. He was recognized as a patron of confessors and moral theologians in 1950. He is the only moral theologian whose opinion the Roman Catholic Church has said we can follow on moral issues.
Pope John Paul II described Alphonsus as "a close friend of the people ... a missionary who went in search of the most abandoned souls ... a founder who wanted a group which would make a radical option in favor of the lowly ... a Bishop whose house was open to all ... a writer who focused on what would be of benefit to people."
Saint Alphonsus de Liguori - The Artist and Thinker
ST. ALPHONSUS DE LIGUORI - THE ARTIST AND THINKER
With thanks to the C.Ss.R. Baltimore Province
Alphonsus' art was influenced by what he saw around him. When he was 23, he painted his own "Christ on the Cross." His painting depicted the death of Love itself. Around that same time he also painted a picture of the Madonna as a woman of peaceful, gentle features — a woman who won his heart. Surrounded by 12 stars she is the portrait of divine beauty in human form. His art, like his music, was a way to lead the men and women of his day, rich and poor, to know the surpassing riches of the knowledge and love of Jesus Christ and his mother Mary.
In his writings for other religious, Alphonsus emphasized practical approaches to reach those who were neglected or alienated from the Church. On a scientific level, he gave new life and direction to moral theology. He found many prominent moral theologians of his time either too rigid or too lax. It was Alphonsus who preached the redeeming love of God.
He believed that law and the threat of punishment were not foremost in God's plan. In God the Creator, love and freedom coincide. The individual was called to love God out of an overwhelming sense of gratitude for what God had done for him in Christ. It was not fear but love that was to characterize the Christian way of life. Ultimately, he wrote his most influential work, Moral Theology, to correct what he saw as errors that could hurt people struggling to live good and moral lives.
In the course of his long life, Alphonsus authored more than 100 books, including his most beloved: Visits to the Blessed Sacrament, The Practice of the Love of Jesus Christ, and The Glories of Mary.
Alphonsus would eventually be given the title "Doctor of Prayer" by the Catholic Church. His book, Prayer, the Great Means of Salvation, sets out his teaching on the subject.
"Having observed," Alphonsus writes, "that so many passages of both the Old and New Testaments assert the absolute necessity of prayer, I have made it a rule to introduce into all our missions ... a sermon on prayer; and I say, and repeat, and will keep on saying as long as I live, that our whole salvation depends on prayer ... For if you pray, your salvation will be secure."
Saint Alphonsus de Liguori - Reaching the People
ST. ALPHONSUS DE LIGUORI - REACHING THE PEOPLE
With thanks to the C.Ss.R. Baltimore Province
St. Alphonsus was a brilliant, articulate, pragmatic preacher. He knew how to reach ordinary people who had limited education and very real needs. They followed this gifted preacher from church to church and town to town to hear him preach the message of hope in Christ for all people.
Three great images, basic to the Christian faith, formed the heart of Alphonsus' preaching and teaching — Jesus an infant in the crib, Jesus crucified on the Cross, and Jesus vibrantly alive and filled with love for all in the Eucharist. To this he added the image of Mary, the Mother of the Redeemer. When other theologians were opposed to devotion to Mary, Alphonsus invoked her: "Hail Holy Queen, Mother of Mercy, our life, our sweetness, and our hope."
Alphonsus appreciated how the poor and working class people expressed their realities through song. A gifted musician and composer, he wrote many popular hymns and taught them to the people in parish missions. His compositions continue to be sung around the world and have never lost their charm and popularity. Redemptorists today still follow the cue of their founder. Their message, announcing the abundance of God's love, is enriched by the spiritual songs they sing in their community and with the people of God.
Alphonsus wrote for the people. Many turned to his spiritual writing, for he wrote in a way that was understandable to anyone with a basic education. On winter evenings in his time, the people in the villages often gathered around a fire in someone's home. Someone read stories about the Gospels or the lives of the saints, things that nourished their faith and helped them to pray. Alphonsus' works were frequent choices.
St. Alphonsus Ligouri - Doctor of Prayer
St. Alphonsus Liguori - Doctor of the Church
Bernard Häring, C.Ss.R.
Alphonsus was declared a Doctor of the Church primarily because of the significant impact he had on moral theology. His role in the renewal of moral theology can be evaluated only in the context of the battles that raged between various kinds of rigorism and legalism. Alphonsus became a tenacious champion in favor of conscience, rejecting the devastating theories that prevailed during his time.
Jansenists and other rigorists preached a religion of fear and anguish, while legalists overburdened Christians with many strictures and outdated laws. I came to understand Alphonsus only after I read the four books in which he defends himself against his detractors—men who evidently believed more in law and control than in creative liberty. How passionately he defends the redeeming love of God against these narrow-minded rigorists! He asks: Did God create a system of law that must be obeyed in servile anguish? No! God creates human beings out of his own love and freedom. Therefore, law and the threat of punishment cannot be foremost in God's plan. In God, the Creator, love and freedom coincide. In God's plan of creation and salvation, the indivisible call to love and to freedom is to be cherished.
REDEEMED AND REDEEMING LOVE
In his moral theology and pastoral care, Alphonsus draws his conclusions from the primacy of love and liberty. One conclusion says: Where there is a concrete doubt about the existence or application of a law or prohibition, freedom is always "in possession." The main purpose of the God-given liberty cannot be the observance of laws but a creative response of love to God and neighbor. Creative and faithful love is immensely greater than that of laws.
From his own pastoral experience, Alphonsus knew that overburdening people's conscience with laws, especially if these laws were arbitrary, suffocated the creativity of love and freedom and caused anguish. Most of the good that Christians do is neither regulated nor imposed by law but is inspired by spontaneous and creative love. Therefore, the core of Alphonsian moral teaching is the ability to discern what is true love, genuine redeemed and redeeming love. Alphonsus best expresses this in his small book The Praxis of Love, which he considered not only his most pious but also his best writing.
Alphonsus writes from personal experience. He had only gradually been liberated and healed from his early experience of rigoristic teaching that he had received while preparing for the priesthood. As a friend of the poor and the outcast, he could fill their hearts with this good news, becoming for many a healer of anguish.
Learning to always give primacy in his pastoral care to the good news of liberating and healing love had taught Alphonsus to test all laws and norms to see whether they truly served the cause of creative and faithful love. Time and again, his opponents accused him of opening doors to arbitrariness and unbridled egotism. All of his responses reflect his firm conviction that the love of God is poured out into the hearts of the faithful. He adored the Holy Spirit, who endows even the most simple person with the gift of wisdom and discernment. He became ever more a master of the Pauline paraklesis, sharing hope-inspired encouragement that is based upon the love and grace of God poured out into the hearts of the humble by the Holy Spirit.
EMPHASIS ON CONSCIENCE
Against legalistic moralism, Alphonsus sets a well-elaborated doctrine on the primacy of conscience. His great work on moral theology (Moral Theology) shares some deficiencies of the period. But his unique and lasting contribution is the role he gives to conscience and the care with which he describes the dynamics of a sound conscience.
Two distinct traits of Alphonsian moral theology are the great reverence he accords each person's conscience and the equally strong appeal to each individual to form a mature conscience. For Alphonsus, the latter does not mean an insistence on the minute details of all possible moral norms and prescripts. Without neglecting the role of norms and laws in Christian life—always, of course, in the light of true love—his main emphasis is on the upright conscience: the individual's search for the meaning of genuine love and for its implications for the good of each person and of the community. Formation of conscience centers on the ability to discern what furthers or hinders the growth of true love. Formation of conscience coincides with the formation of character and an ever more committed choice to love Jesus, joining him in his loving concern for others. Favoring the preeminence of conscience and inner freedom over an anguishing rigorism and legalism is the hallmark of Alphonsian moral teaching.
It is significant that two Redemptorists (Father Domenico Capone and I) drafted the final wording of the article on conscience in the Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World. I believe that this text accurately summarizes the Alphonsian vision on conscience:
"Deep within his conscience, man discovers a law which he has not laid upon himself but which he must obey. Its voice, ever calling him to love and to do what is good and to avoid evil, tells him inwardly at the right moment: do this, shun that. For man has in his heart a law inscribed by God. His dignity lies in observing this law, and by it he will be judged (see Rom 2:15-16). His conscience is man's most secret core, and his sanctuary. There he is alone with God whose voice echoes in his depths. By conscience, in a wonderful way, that law is made known which is fulfilled in the love of God and of one's neighbor (see Mt 22:37-40; Gal 5:14). Through loyalty to conscience Christians are joined to other men in the search for truth and for the right solution to so many moral problems which arise both in the life of individuals and from social relationships. Hence, the more a correct conscience prevails, the more do persons and groups turn aside from blind choice and try to be guided by the objective standards of moral conduct. Yet it often happens that conscience goes astray through ignorance which it is unable to avoid, without thereby losing its dignity. This cannot be said of the man who takes little trouble to find out what is true and good, or when conscience is by degrees almost blinded through the habit of committing sin" (16).
The merit of this truly Alphonsian text becomes even more evident if you read previous formulations written by those from a more legal-minded tradition. Alphonsus and his followers in moral theology fought difficult battles to sustain this vision, supported by other great men such as Cardinal John Henry Newman.
It is gratifying to recognize in these battles for the preeminence of conscience over law and control not only Alphonsus' skills as an outstanding lawyer but his thoroughly pastoral approach as well. He was a bold advocate of the upright and sincere conscience.
We need to be aware that the moral theology of Alphonsus reflects to some degree the influences of his time. Alphonsus had to work, think, and write within the context of his culture and, as far as possible, in accordance with the Church of his time. Even so, Alphonsus was ahead of his time in his teachings on several controversial issues. I mention here two examples: his stand on usury and on marital chastity regarding the transmission of life, where he had to fight not only stubborn rigorists but longstanding tradition as well.
His stance—vehemently labeled as laxism—was, in reality, rooted in Alphonsus' emphasis on the universal vocation to holiness. Many people in those days identified holiness with belonging to the so-called "states of perfection" and with scrupulous observance of rigoristic norms (usually of prohibitive character). Alphonsus, on the contrary, firmly believed that God calls each of us, married people as well as celibates, business people as well as cloistered nuns, to Christian holiness that integrates love of God and love of neighbor.
In Alphonsus' time, borrowing or lending money with interest was labeled and condemned as usury. Traditional rules did not allow any exceptions, which alerted the pastoral concern of Alphonsus. How could people whose economic status forced them to borrow or lend money with interest fulfill their vocation to holiness? The solution had to be in accordance with the vocation of all to holiness. Looking to Tradition and church documents with little success, he turned to the example of good Christians. He found that many of them had good reasons and felt free to lend or to borrow capital with interest. He finally trusted in the experience of these good people and determined that there were occasions when taking or granting loans with moderate interest should be allowed. This decision provoked wild protest from numerous moralists and other churchmen, but Alphonsus was finally able to convince Pope Benedict XIV.
THE TRANSMISSION OF LIFE
When Alphonsus first became a moral theologian, the Augustinian view of marriage and marital chastity was commonly held: conjugal inter-course could be "excused" from sin only when motivated by the intention to transmit new life. In this matter, Alphonsus was particularly daring. He wrote that "with all respect for Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas," it has to be affirmed that the conjugal act, when manifesting conjugal love and faithfulness, needs no "excusation" by a direct intention to procreate new life. And he sharply concluded: "And this is a matter of faith—Et hoc est de fide" (Moral Theology).
Many issues mentioned in this article manifest clearly why Alphonsus is known for his courageous stand against rigorism and legalism. For him, this was nothing less than removing unnecessary obstacles on the road to holiness. He didn't stop, however, at just removing obstacles; his strongest characteristic was in giving positive encouragement. Through his wisdom and enthusiasm, he could somehow "contaminate" people with his own firm conviction that all are called to nothing less than holiness. Its origin is God's love, its road is love, its final goal and fulfillment are everlasting love.
Bernard Haring, C.Ss.R., a renowned moral theologian and prolific author, died July 3, 1998.
Saint Alphonsus de Liguori - Our Founder
ST. ALPHONSUS DE LIGUORI - OUR FOUNDER
With thanks to the C.Ss.R. Baltimore Province
Saint, Doctor of the Church, Moral Theologian
Feast Day: August 1
Alphonsus Maria de Liguori was born in 1696 near Naples, Italy, the son of a captain in the Royal Navy and a very devoted mother from a noble family in the city. His parents provided him with an exceptional education in philosophy, literature, and the arts. He was 16 when he was awarded doctorates of civil and canon law. When he was 18, like many nobles, he joined the Confraternity of Our Lady of Mercy with whom he cared for the sick at the hospital for "incurables," washing afflicted bodies, feeding the helpless, changing bedclothes and devoting himself to works of mercy and compassion.
Following his father's will he became a lawyer and before he was 20, he was regarded as one of the most gifted lawyers working in the kingdom of Naples. This work, however, despite its success, did not satisfy him at the deepest levels of his heart and soul. After losing what was the most important court case he had ever taken on, Alphonsus left the legal profession to enter the priesthood, much to the disappointment of his father. He was ordained in 1726.
Christ's claim on the heart of Alphonsus was absolute and irresistible. As a young priest he worked himself to the point of exhaustion. Caring for the poor, wherever his journey took him, was the hallmark of his calling.
In 1732, Alphonsus realized he could no longer be comfortable in his role of popular preacher living apart from the poor. So, leaving his family and his dearest friends, he set out to dedicate himself completely to the service of the poor and most abandoned. He sought others who were called as he was, and adopted a style of ministry to "mission among the people" — and so began the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, commonly known as the Redemptorists.
During a mission, a band of Redemptorist priests and brothers would come to an area to preach and conduct religious activities. They saturated the people with the sense of God. They lived in community in houses in the countryside so that the mission revivals could be repeated regularly, which gave the poor the assurance they would not be abandoned by Alphonsus and his brothers.